IV. Pain and Symptom Management  
      A. Pain Assessment Tools

(Also see Research Instruments)

This section includes various tools to assess pain.  Specifically, pocket reference cards,  rating scales, assessment packets, chart forms, database tools, home health flow sheets, chart documentation packets, and tools for infant and pediatric pain assessment are among the resources available.

Recommended Publications

  1. Pain Assessment and Pharmacologic Management
      Pasero, C. & McCaffery, M. (2010). MO: St Louis,
        Elsevier Mosby. ISBN# 978-0-323-05696-0.

      Section II: Assessment, particularly Chapter 3:
        Assessment Tools. Forms, checklists, tips, and
         strategies for assessing acute   and chronic pain,
         nociceptive and neuropathic pain, pain in adults,
         children, infants, cognitively impaired persons, and  
         persons who cannot self-report. Many tools for a
         variety of populations in English and several other
         languages. Fifteen pages of references at the end of
         the section.
  2. Herr, K., Bursch, H., Ersek, M., Miller, L. L., Swafford, K. (2010). Use of pain-behavioral assessment tools in thenursing home: Expert consensus recommendations for practice. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 36(3), 18-29. DOI: 10.3928/00989134-20100108-04.

Pain Assessment Tools

  1. Communication Cards for Patients and Their Care Team - City of Hope, Duarte, CA
      Pain assessment tools include phrases in English,
       Spanish, Chinese, Armenian and Korean.

  2. Fast Facts and Concepts – Palliative Care Newtwork of Wisconsin (PCNOW)  Over 200 Fast Facts, a PDA version and a Discussion Blog.  
          Cultural Aspects of Pain Managements, 2nd ed.,

          Establishing Pain Relief Goals
        -      Insomnia Assessment and Treatment  

      -   Pain Assessment in the Cognitively Impaired 
          Pain, Suffering and Spiritual Assessment
        -      Pediatric Pain Assessment Scales, #117
    Pseudoaddiction, 2nd ed., #69       
     -   What is Neuropathic Pain

    Get the Fast Facts App
    -   iPhone (iTunes)
    -   Android (Google Play)
  3. Home Health Pain Management Flow Sheet - University of Wisconsin Hospitals & Clinics, Madison, WI  
        -    A one-page pain management flow sheet to be
               used in the home care setting.
  4. Pain Assessment Packet/Chart Forms  
           Nursing Assessment and Care Plan - City of Hope,
             Duarte, CA  
             Comprehensive pain assessment tool for use in
              initial evaluation of patients referred to a pain

       -     Pain Rating Scales – InteliHealth   
              The three pain rating scales included are:  0-10
                visual analog scale, Wong-Baker Faces rating
                 scale and the verbal scale.
  5. Pain Assessment Packet/Chart Forms - Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH
       -     Initial Pain Rating Tool & Pain Flow Sheet  
        -     Post-Operative Pain Management Needs
    A tool to assess the nurse’s knowledge and
              attitude regarding pain management.
  6. Pain Management – United States Department of Veterans Affairs
            Clinical Tools and Resources
  7. Pain Scales in Multiple Languages
    - The British Pain Society has produced a series of
         pain scales 
    in multiple languages (Albanian, Arabic,
         Bengali, Chinese (simplified), Chinese (traditional),
         Greek, Gujurati, Hindi, Polish, Punjabi, Somali,
         Swahili, Turkish, Urdu, Vietnamese, and Welsh).
  8. Psychosocial Pain Assessment Form - City of Hope, Duarte, CA
    - Developed by Shirley Otis-Green, MSW, LCSW.
       This 8-page assessment and guided interview form
       measures the impact of pain on five domains;
       economics, social support, activities of daily living,
       emotional problems, and coping behaviors as
       perceived by the interviewer, patient and significant

         Psychosocial Pain Assessment Forms in Spanish
       (for adults and children/adolescents):
             -      Formulario de Análisis Psicosocial del Dolor
                     Para Adultos
             -      Formulario de Analisis Psicosocial del Dolor
                     Para Niños y Adolescentes    
  9. State of the Art Review of Tools for Assessment of Pain in Nonverbal Older Adults  (New Tools Added)
      Overview, Criteria for Evaluation, Comparison
                    Grid, Comparison of Tool Items with AGS
                    Persistent Pain Guidelines,     Review References
             -      Criteria for Evaluation 
    Comparison Grid 
    Comparison of Tool Items
             -      Review References
             -      Detailed Information or Brief Summaries 

    -      Abbey Pain Scale (Abbey, J., et al.)
    -      Assessment of Discomfort in Dementia (ADD)
                     Protocol, (Kovach, C.R., et al.)
             -      Certified Nurse Assistant Pain Assessment
                    Tool (CPAT) (Cervo, F., et al.)

          Checklist of Nonverbal Pain Indicators (CNPI),
                   (Feldt, K.)
             -      Disability Distress Assessment Tool (Dis DAT)
                    (Regnard, D., et al.)
             -      Discomfort Behavior Scale (DBS) (Stevenson,

          Discomfort Scale-Dementia of the Alzheimer’s "
     (DS-DAT), (Hurley, A., et al.)

          Doloplus 2, (Wary, B.)
             -      Elderly Pain Caring Assessment 2 (EPCA-2)
                    (Morello, R., et al.)

          Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability Pain
                    Assessment Tool
     (the FLACC), (Merkel, S. I., et
             -      Mobilization-Observation-Behavior-Intensity-
                     Dementia Pain Scale (MOBID) (Husebo, B. S., et

          Nursing Assistant-Administered Instrument to
                   Assess Pain in Demented Individuals
    (NOPPAIN), (Snow, A. L., et al.)
    -      Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia 
                   (PAINAD) Scale, (Warden, V., et al.)
    -      Pain Assessment for the Dementing Elderly 
    (PADE), (Villaneuva, M.R., et al.)
             -      Pain Assessment in Noncommunicative Elderly
                     Persons (PAINE) (Cohen-Mansfield, J., et al.)
    -      Pain Assessment Scale for Seniors with Severe
     (PACSLAC), (Fuchs-Lacelle, S. K., et 
             -      Pain Behavior for Osteoarthritis Instrument for
                    Cognitively Impaired Elders (PBOICIE) (Tsai, P.,
                    et al.)


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